اصلی The Economics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)
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The Economics Book, 2012_(Niall Kishtainy et al.).pdf
04 December 2019 (11:15)
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06 September 2022 (17:52)
LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, AND DELHI DK LONDON DK DELHI First American Edition, 2012 PROJECT ART EDITORS Anna Hall, Duncan Turner SENIOR ART EDITOR Ivy Roy SENIOR EDITORS Janet Mohun, Rebecca Warren ART EDITOR Arijit Ganguly Published in the United States by DK Publishing 375 Hudson Street New York, New York 10014 EDITOR Lizzie Munsey ASSISTANT ART EDITORS Sanjay Chauhan, Kanika Mittal US EDITOR Kate Johnsen CONSULTANT ART DIRECTOR Shefali Upadhyay MANAGING ART EDITOR Michelle Baxter SENIOR EDITOR Anita Kakar MANAGING EDITOR Camilla Hallinan EDITORS Rupa Rao, Priyaneet Singh PUBLISHER Sarah Larter DEPUTY MANAGING EDITOR Alka Thakur ART DIRECTOR Philip Ormerod EDITORIAL MANAGER Rohan Sinha Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. ASSOCIATE PUBLISHING DIRECTOR Liz Wheeler DTP MANAGER Balwant Singh Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. PUBLISHING DIRECTOR Jonathan Metcalf DTP DESIGNERS Vishal Bhatia, Bimlesh Tiwary A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley Limited All rights reserved. ISBN: 978-0-7566-9827-0 ILLUSTRATIONS James Graham produced for DK by PICTURE RESEARCH Louise Thomas TALLTREE LTD PRODUCTION EDITOR Ben Marcus MANAGING EDITOR David John PRODUCTION CONTROLLER Sophie Argyris COMMISSIONING EDITOR Sarah Tomley SENIOR DESIGNER Ben Ruocco original styling by STUDIO8 DESIGN 07 08 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 001 - 186345 - Sep/2012 SENIOR EDITORS Rob Colson, Deirdre Headon DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishin; g Special Markets, 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 or SpecialSales@dk.com. Printed and bound in China by Leo Paper Products Ltd Discover more at www.dk.com CONTRIBUTORS NIALL KISHTAINY, CONSULTANT EDITOR JAMES MEADWAY Niall Kishtainy teaches at the London School of Economics and specializes in economic history and development. He has worked for the World Bank and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Economist James Meadway works at the New Economics Foundation, an independent British think tank. He has also worked as a policy adviser for the UK Treasury. GEORGE ABBOT CHRISTOPHER WALLACE George Abbot is an economist who worked in 2012 on Barack Obama’s presidential reelection campaign. He previously worked with Compass, the inﬂuential UK think tank, on strategic documents such as Plan B: A New Economy for a New Society. Christopher Wallace is Head of Economics at the UK’s prestigious Colchester Royal Grammar School. He has been teaching economics for more than 25 years. JOHN FARNDON MARCUS WEEKS John Farndon is the author of many books on contemporary issues and the history of ideas, including overviews of the booming economies of China and India. Marcus Weeks studied philosophy and worked as a teacher before embarking on a career as an author. He has contributed to many books on the arts and popular sciences. FRANK KENNEDY Frank Kennedy worked for over 25 years in investment banking in the City of London as a top-ranked investment analyst and as a managing director in capital markets, where he led a European team advising ﬁnancial institutions. He studied economic history at the London School of Economics. CONTENTS 10 INTRODUCTION LET THE TRADING BEGIN 400 BCE–1770 CE 20 Property should be private Property rights 22 What is a just price? Markets and morality 24 You don’t need to barter when you have coins The function of money 26 THE AGE OF REASON 1770–1820 52 Man is a cold, rational calculator Economic man 54 The invisible hand of the market brings order Free market economics 62 The last worker adds less to output than the ﬁrst Diminishing returns 63 Why do diamonds cost more than water? The paradox of value 64 Make taxes fair and efﬁcient The tax burden Make money from money Financial services 30 Money causes inﬂation The quantity theory of money 34 Protect us from foreign goods Protectionism and trade 36 The economy can be counted Measuring wealth 66 Divide up pin production, and you get more pins The division of labor 68 Population growth keeps us poor Demographics and economics 70 Meetings of merchants end in conspiracies to raise prices Cartels and collusion 38 Let ﬁrms be traded Public companies 39 Wealth comes from the land Agriculture in the economy 74 Supply creates its own demand Gluts in markets 40 Money and goods ﬂow between producers and consumers The circular ﬂow of the economy 76 Borrow now, tax later Borrowing and debt 78 The economy is a yo-yo Boom and bust 80 Trade is beneﬁcial for all Comparative advantage 46 Private individuals never pay for street lights Provision of public goods and services WAR AND DEPRESSIONS INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC REVOULTIONS 1929–1945 1820–1929 90 92 98 How much should I produce, given the competition? Effects of limited competition Phone calls cost more without competition Monopolies Crowds breed collective insanity Economic bubbles 100 Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution Marxist economics 106 The value of a product comes from the effort needed to make it The labor theory of value 154 Unemployment is not a choice Depressions and unemployment 126 Companies are price others avoid it Risk and uncertainty 130 Make one person better off 164 Government spending without hurting the others Efﬁciency and fairness and demand Supply and demand the lower the cost Economies of scale chocolate less than the ﬁrst Utility and satisfaction movies is the fun you’d have had at an ice rink Opportunity cost 134 Workers must improve their lot together Collective bargaining be noticed Conspicuous consumption External costs in culture Economics and tradition 168 Managers go for perks, not their company’s proﬁts Corporate governance 170 The economy is a predictable machine Testing economic theories 171 Economics is the science of scarce resources Deﬁnitions of economics 172 We wish to preserve a free society Economic liberalism 138 Protestantism has made us rich Religion and the economy 116 When the price goes up, some people buy more Spending paradoxes 166 Economies are embedded 133 The cost of going to the 137 Make the polluter pay 114 You enjoy the last boosts the economy by more than what is spent The Keynesian multiplier 132 The bigger the factory, 136 People consume to 108 Prices come from supply 162 Some people love risk, takers not price makers The competitive market 140 The poor are unlucky, 178 Industrialization creates sustained growth The emergence of modern economies not bad The poverty problem 180 Different prices to different 118 A system of free markets is stable Economic equilibrium 124 If you get a pay raise, buy caviar not bread Elasticity of demand 142 Socialism is the abolition of rational economy Central planning 148 Capitalism destroys the old and creates the new Creative destruction people Price discrimination POST-WAR ECONOMICS CONTEMPORARY ECONOMICS 186 In the wake of war 262 It is possible to invest 1945–1970 1970–PRESENT and depression, nations must cooperate International trade and Bretton Woods without risk Financial engineering 266 People are not 220 Policies to correct markets 188 All poor countries need is a big push Development economics can make things worse The theory of the second best 270 Tax cuts can increase 222 Make markets fair 194 People are inﬂuenced by irrelevant alternatives Irrational decision making 196 Governments should do nothing but control the money supply Monetarist policy 202 The more people at work, the higher their bills Inﬂation and unemployment 204 People smooth consumption over their life spans Saving to spend 206 Institutions matter Institutions in economics 208 People will avoid work if they can Market information and incentives The social market economy efﬁciency require many assumptions Markets and social outcomes will be rich Economic growth theories 226 Globalization is not inevitable Market integration 232 Socialism leads to empty shops Shortages in planned economies 234 What does the other man think I am going to do? Game theory 242 Rich countries impoverish the poor Dependency theory 244 You can’t fool the people Rational expectations about probability when they choose Paradoxes in decision making 250 Similar economies can 214 There is no perfect voting system Social choice theory beneﬁt from a single currency Exchange rates and currencies 216 The aim is to maximize happiness, not income The economics of happiness the tax take Taxation and economic incentives 224 Over time, all countries 248 People don’t care 210 Theories about market 100 percent rational Behavioral economics 256 Famine can happen in good harvests Entitlement theory 272 Prices tell you everything Efﬁcient markets 273 Over time, even the selﬁsh cooperate with others Competition and cooperation 274 Most cars traded will be lemons Market uncertainty 276 The government’s promises are incredible Independent central banks 302 Businesses pay more than the market wage Incentives and wages 303 Real wages rise during a recession Sticky wages 304 Finding a job is like ﬁnding a partner or a house Searching and matching 306 The biggest challenge for collective action is climate change Economics and the environment 316 Pessimism can destroy healthy banks Bank runs 310 GDP ignores women Gender and economics 312 Comparative advantage 278 The economy is chaotic even when individuals are not Complexity and chaos is an accident Trade and geography 313 Like steam, computers 280 Social networks are have revolutionized economies Technological leaps a kind of capital Social capital 314 We can kick-start poor 281 Education is only a signal of ability Signaling and screening economies by writing off debt International debt relief 322 Savings gluts abroad fuel speculation at home Global savings imbalances 326 More equal societies grow faster Inequality and growth 328 Even beneﬁcial economic reforms can fail Resisting economic change 330 The housing market mirrors boom and bust Housing and the economic cycle 282 The East Asian state governs the market Asian Tiger economies 288 Beliefs can trigger currency crises Speculation and currency devaluation 294 Auction winners pay over the odds The winner’s curse 332 DIRECTORY 340 GLOSSARY 344 INDEX 296 Stable economies contain the seeds of instability Financial crises 351 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INTRODU CTION 12 INTRODUCTION F ew people would claim to know very much about economics, perhaps seeing it as a complex and esoteric subject with little relevance to their everyday lives. It has been generally felt to be the preserve of professionals in business, ﬁnance, and government. Yet most of us are becoming more aware of its inﬂuence on our wealth and wellbeing, and we may also have opinions—often quite strong ones—about the rising cost of living, taxes, government spending, and so on. Sometimes these opinions are based on an instant reaction to an item in the news, but they are also frequently the subject of discussions in the In economics, hope and faith coexist with great scientiﬁc pretension and also a deep desire for respectability. John Kenneth Galbraith Canadian-US economist (1908–2006) workplace or over the dinner table. So to some extent, we do all take an interest in economics. The arguments we use to justify our opinions are generally the same as those used by economists, so a better knowledge of their theories can give us a better understanding of the economic principles that are at play in our lives. Economics in the news Today, with the world in apparent economic turmoil, it seems more important than ever to learn something about economics. Far from occupying a separate section of our newspaper or making up a small part of the television news, economic news now regularly makes the headlines. As early as 1997, the US Republican political campaign strategist Robert Teeter noted its dominance, saying, “Look at the declining television coverage [of politics]. Look at the declining voting rate. Economics and economic news is what moves the country now, not politics.” Yet how much do we really understand when we hear about rising unemployment, inﬂation, stock market crises, and trading deﬁcits? When we’re asked to tighten our belts or pay more taxes, do we know why? And when we seem to be at the mercy of risk-taking banks and big corporations, do we know how they came to be so powerful or understand the reasons for their original and continued existence? The discipline of economics is at the heart of questions such as these. The study of management Despite the importance and centrality of economics to many issues that affect us all, economics as a discipline is often viewed with suspicion. A popular conception is that it is dry and academic, due to its reliance on statistics, graphs, and formulas. The 19th-century Scottish historian Thomas Carlyle described economics as the “dismal science” that is “dreary, desolate, and, indeed, quite abject and distressing.” Another common misconception is that it is “all about money,” and while this has a grain of truth, it is by no means the whole picture. So, what is economics all about? The word is derived from the Greek word Oikonomia, meaning “household management,” and it has come to mean the study of the way we manage our resources, and more speciﬁcally, the production and exchange of goods and services. Of course, the business INTRODUCTION 13 of producing goods and providing services is as old as civilization, but the study of how the process works in practice is comparatively new. It evolved only gradually; philosophers and politicians have expressed their opinions on economic matters since the time of the ancient Greeks, but the ﬁrst true economists to make a study of the subject did not appear until the end of the 18th century. At that time the study was known as “political economy,” and had emerged as a branch of political philosophy. However, those studying its theories increasingly felt that it should be distinguished as a subject in its own right and began to refer to it as “economic science.” This later became popularized in the shorter form of “economics.” A softer science Is economics a science? The 19th-century economists certainly liked to think so, and although Carlyle thought it dismal, even he digniﬁed it with the label of science. Much economic theory was modeled on mathematics and even physics (perhaps the “-ics” ending of “economics” helped to lend it scientiﬁc respectability), and it sought to determine the laws that govern how the economy behaves, in the same way that scientists had discovered the physical laws underlying natural phenomena. Economies, however, are man-made and are dependent on the rational or irrational behavior of the humans that act within them, so economics as a science has more in common with the “soft sciences” of psychology, sociology, and politics. Economics was perhaps best deﬁned by British economist Lionel Robbins. In 1932, he described it in his Essay on the Nature and Signiﬁcance of Economic Science The ﬁrst lesson of economics is scarcity: there is never enough of anything to satisfy all those who want it. The ﬁrst lesson of politics is to disregard the ﬁrst lesson of economics. Thomas Sowell US economist (1930– ) as “the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.” This broad deﬁnition remains the most popular one in use today. The most important difference between economics and other sciences, however, is that the systems it examines are ﬂuid. As well as describing and explaining economies and how they function, economists can also suggest how they ought to be constructed or can be improved. The ﬁrst economists Modern economics emerged as a distinct discipline in the 18th century, in particular with the publication in 1776 of The Wealth of Nations, written by the great Scottish thinker Adam Smith. However, what prompted interest in the subject was not so much the writings of economists as the enormous changes in the economy itself with the advent of the Industrial Revolution. Previous thinkers had commented on the management of goods and services within societies, treating questions that arose as problems for moral or political philosophy. But with the arrival of factories and mass producers of goods came a new ❯❯ 14 INTRODUCTION era of economic organization that looked at the bigger picture. This was the beginning of the so-called market economy. Smith’s analysis of the new system set the standard with a comprehensive explanation of the competitive market. Smith suggested that the market is guided by an “invisible hand,” where the rational actions of self-interested individuals ultimately give the wider society exactly what it needs. Smith was a philosopher, and the subject of his book was “political economy” —it stretched beyond economics to include politics, history, philosophy, and anthropology. After Smith a new breed of economic thinkers emerged who chose to concentrate entirely on the economy. Each of these built upon our understanding of the economy—how it works and how it should be managed—and laid the foundations for the various branches of economics. As the discipline evolved, economists identiﬁed speciﬁc areas to examine. One approach was to look at the economy as a whole, either at a national or international level, which became known as “macroeconomics.” This area of economics takes in topics such as growth and development, measurement of a country’s wealth in terms of output and income, and its policies for international trade, taxation, and controlling inﬂation and unemployment. In contrast, what we now call “microeconomics” looks at the interactions of individual people and ﬁrms within the economy: the business of supply and demand, buyers and sellers, markets and competition. New schools of thought Naturally, there were differences of opinion among economists, and various schools of thought evolved. Many welcomed the prosperity that the modern industrial economy Economics is, at root, the study of incentives: how people get what they want, or need, especially when other people want or need the same thing. Steven D. Levitt Stephen J. Dubner US economists (1967– and 1963– ) brought and advocated a “hands-off” or laissez-faire approach to allow the competitive market to create wealth and stimulate technological innovation. Others were more cautious in their estimation of the market’s ability to beneﬁt society and identiﬁed failings of the system. They thought these could be overcome by state intervention and argued for a role for governments in providing certain goods and services and in curbing the power of the producers. In the analysis of some, notably the German philosopher Karl Marx, a capitalist economy was fatally ﬂawed and would not survive. The ideas of the early “classical” economists such as Smith were increasingly subjected to rigorous examination. By the late 19th century economists educated in science were approaching the subject through the disciplines of mathematics, engineering, and physics. These “neoclassical” economists described the economy in graphs and formulas, and proposed laws that governed the workings of the markets and justiﬁed their approach. By the end of the 19th century economics was beginning to develop national characteristics: centers of economic thinking had INTRODUCTION 15 grown as university departments were established, and there were distinguishable differences between the major schools in Austria, Britain, and Switzerland, particularly on the desirability of some degree of state intervention in the economy. These differences became even more apparent in the 20th century, when revolutions in Russia and China brought almost a third of the world under communist rule, with planned economies rather than competitive markets. The rest of the world, however, was concerned with asking whether the markets alone could be trusted to provide prosperity. While continental Europe and Britain argued about degrees of government intervention, the real battle of ideas was fought in the US during the Great Depression after the Wall Street Crash of 1929. In the second half of the 20th century the center of economic thought shifted from Europe to the US, which had become the dominant economic superpower and was adopting ever more laissez-faire policies. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, it seemed that the free market economy was indeed the route to economic success, as Smith had predicted. Not everyone agreed. Although the majority of economists had faith in the stability, efﬁciency, and rationality of the markets, there were some who had doubts, and new approaches arose. Alternative approaches In the late 20th century new areas of economics incorporated ideas from disciplines such as psychology and sociology into their theories, as well as new advances in mathematics and physics, such as game theory and chaos theory. These theorists also warned of weaknesses in the capitalist system. The increasingly severe and frequent ﬁnancial crises that took place at the beginning of the 21st century reinforced the feeling that there was something fundamentally wrong in the system; at the same time scientists concluded that our ever-increasing economic wealth came at a cost to the environment in the form of potentially disastrous climate change. As Europe and the US begin to deal with perhaps the most serious economic problems they have ever faced, new economies have emerged, especially in Southeast Asia and the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Economic power is once again shifting, and no doubt new economic thinking will evolve to help manage our scarce resources. One prominent casualty of the recent economic crises is Greece, where the history of economics started, and where the word “economics” comes from. In 2012, protesters in Athens pointed out that democracy also comes from the Greeks but is in danger of being sacriﬁced in the search for a solution to a debt crisis. It remains to be seen how the world economy will resolve its problems, but, armed with the principles of economics outlined in this book, you will see how we got into the present situation, and perhaps begin to see a way out. ■ The purpose of studying economics is …to learn how to avoid being deceived by economists. Joan Robinson UK economist (1903–83 ) LET TRA BEGIN 400 –1770 BCE CE DING 18 INTRODUCTION Plato describes his ideal state, where property is owned by all and labor is specialized. Thomas Aquinas argues that the price of a product is “just” only if proﬁt is not excessive and there is no deception involved in the sale. Bills of exchange become a standard method of payment in European trade, redeemable by merchant banks. The British East India Company, an international trading company and the world’s ﬁrst global brand, is established. C.380 BCE 1265–74 CE C.1400 1599 A C.350 BCE 1397 1492 C.1630 Aristotle argues in favor of private property but against accumulating money for its own sake. The Medici Bank is founded in Florence, Italy—one of the ﬁrst of the ﬁnancial institutions built on international trade. Christopher Columbus arrives in the Americas; soon gold is ﬂowing into Europe, increasing the money supply. Thomas Mun advocates a mercantilist policy, using foreign exports as a way of increasing a nation’s wealth. s civilizations evolved in the ancient world, so too did systems for providing goods and services to populations. These early economic systems emerged naturally as various trades and crafts produced goods that could be exchanged. People began to trade, ﬁrst by bartering and later with coins of precious metal, and trade became a central part of life. The business of buying and selling goods operated for centuries before it occurred to anyone to examine how the system worked. The ancient Greek philosophers were among the ﬁrst to write about the topics that came to be known collectively as “economics.” In The Republic, Plato described the political and social makeup of an ideal state, which he said would function economically, with specialty producers providing products for the common good. However, his pupil Aristotle defended the concept of private property, which could be traded in the market. These are arguments that have continued to the present day. As philosophers Plato and Aristotle thought of economics as a matter of moral philosophy: rather than analyzing how an economic system worked, they came up with ideas for how it should work. This kind of approach is said to be “normative”—it is subjective and looks at “what ought to be” the case. The normative approach to economics continued into the Christian era, as medieval philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas (p.23) attempted to deﬁne the ethics of private property and trading in the marketplace. Aquinas considered the morality of prices, arguing for the importance of “just” prices, where no excessive proﬁt was made by the merchant. The ancients lived in societies where labor was composed largely of slaves, and medieval Europe ran on a feudal system—where peasants were protected by local lords in exchange for labor or military service. So the moral arguments of these philosophers were somewhat academic. Rise of the city-states A major change occurred in the 15th century, as city-states developed in Europe and became wealthy through international trade. A new, prosperous class of merchants replaced the feudal landowners as the important players in the economy, and they worked hand-in- LET TRADING BEGIN 19 A speculative bubble in the Dutch market for tulips bursts, leaving thousands of investors ruined. William Petty shows how the economy can be measured in Quantulumcunque Concerning Money. Gregory King compiles a statistical summary of the trade of England in the 17th century. François Quesnay and his followers, the physiocrats, argue that land and agriculture are the only sources of economic prosperity. 1637 1682 1697 1756 1668 1689 1752 1758 Josiah Child describes free trade—he advocates increasing imports as well as exports. John Locke argues that wealth is derived not from trade, but from labor. David Hume argues that public goods should be paid for by governments. Quesnay produces his Economic Table, the ﬁrst analysis for the workings of a whole economy—the “macroeconomy.” hand with dynasties of bankers, who ﬁnanced their trading and voyages of discovery. New trading nations replaced small-scale feudal economies, and economic thinking began to focus on how best to control the exchange of goods and money from one country to another. The dominating approach of the time, known as mercantilism, was concerned with the balance of payments—the difference between what a country spends on imports and what it earns from exports. Selling goods abroad was seen as good because it brought money into the country; importing goods was seen as damaging because money ﬂowed out. To prevent a trade deﬁcit and protect domestic producers against foreign competition, mercantilists advocated the taxing of imports. As trade increased, it moved beyond the hands of individual merchants and their backers. Partnerships and companies were set up, often with government backing, to oversee large trading operations. These ﬁrms began to be split into “shares” so they could be ﬁnanced by many investors. Interest in buying shares grew rapidly in the late 17th century, leading to the establishment of many joint-stock companies and stock exchanges, where the shares could be bought and sold. A new science The huge increase in trading also prompted a renewed interest in the working of the economy and led to the beginnings of the discipline of economics. Emerging at the beginning of the 18th century, the so-called Age of Enlightenment, which prized rationality above all, took a scientiﬁc approach to “political economy.” Economists attempted to measure economic activity and described the working of the system, rather than looking only at moral implications. In France a group of thinkers known as the physiocrats analyzed the ﬂow of money around the economy and effectively produced the ﬁrst macroeconomic (wholeeconomy) model. They placed agriculture rather than trade or ﬁnance at the heart of the economy. Meanwhile, political philosophers in Britain shifted the emphasis away from mercantilist ideas of trade, and toward producers, consumers, and the value and utility of goods. The framework for the modern study of economics was beginning to emerge. ■ 20 PROPERTY SHOULD BE PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS IN CONTEXT FOCUS Society and the economy KEY THINKER Aristotle (384–322 BCE) BEFORE 423–347 BCE Plato argues in The Republic that rulers should hold property collectively for the common good. AFTER 1–250 CE In classical Roman law the sum of rights and powers a person has over a thing is called dominium. W e learn about ownership and personal property from our earliest childhood tussles over toys. This concept is often taken for granted, yet there is nothing inevitable about the idea. Private property is fundamental to capitalism. Karl Marx (p.105) noted that the wealth generated by capitalism presents societies with “an immense collection of commodities” that are privately owned and may be traded for proﬁt. Businesses are also privately owned and operated for proﬁt in a free market. Without the idea of private property, there is no 1265–74 Thomas Aquinas argues that owning property is natural and good, but private property is less important than the public good. 1689 John Locke states that what you create by your own labor is yours by right. 1848 Karl Marx writes the Communist Manifesto, advocating the complete abolition of private property. Defending private ownership is important in capitalist countries. This house in Warsaw, Poland, is the most secure home ever built; it turns into a steel cube at the touch of a button. potential for personal gain—there is no reason even to enter the market. There is, in effect, no market. Types of property “Property” encompasses a wide range of things, from material goods to intellectual property (such as patents or written text). It has entered realms that even free market economists would not defend, such as slavery—where people were viewed as commodities. Historically, material property has been organized three different ways. First, everything can be held in common and used by everyone as they wish, on the basis of mutual trust and custom. This was the case in tribal economies, and it is still practiced by the Huaorani people of the Amazon. Second, property can be held and used collectively; this is the essence of the communist system. Third, property can be held in private, with each person free to do with it as they choose. This is the concept at the heart of capitalism. Modern economists tend to justify private property on pragmatic grounds, arguing that the market simply can’t operate without some division of resources. Earlier thinkers made more of a moral case LET TRADING BEGIN 21 See also: Markets and morality 22–23 ■ Provision of public goods and services 46–47 ■ Marxist economics 100–05 ■ Deﬁnitions of economics 171 … it prevents people from acting benevolently (people cannot be generous if they don’t have anything to give away). When property is held in common… … it provides little incentive for individuals to trade and invest. … no one maintains it (everyone will act self-interestedly and assume someone else will do the work). for private property. The Greek philosopher Aristotle argued that “property should be private.” He pointed out that when property is held in common, no one takes responsibility to maintain and improve it. Moreover, people can only become generous if they have something to give away. A right to property In the 17th century all land and housing in Europe was effectively owned by monarchs. The English philosopher John Locke (1632–1704), however, spoke out for individual rights, saying that as God gave us Property should be private. dominion over our own bodies, we also have dominion over the things we make. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) later argued that private property is a legitimate expression of the self. Another German philosopher, however, rejected the notion of private property entirely. Karl Marx insisted that the concept of private property is nothing but a device by which the capitalist expropriates the labor of the proletarian, keeps him in slavery, and excludes him. The proletariat is effectively locked out of the select group that controls all wealth and power. ■ How private? In every modern society some things are shared as collective property, such as streets and parks. Others, such as cars, are private property. Property rights, or legal ownership, normally confers on the owner exclusive rights over a particular resource, but this is not always the case. The owner of a house in a historic district, for instance, might not be allowed to knock it down and replace it with a skyscraper or a factory, or even change the use of the current building. The governments of every country in the world reserve the right to override private ownership when this is deemed necessary, for reasons varying from the needs of infrastructure to national safety issues. Even in the US, a staunchly capitalist nation, the government may force a property owner to relinquish his or her rights. However, the 14th amendment to the Constitution softens this blow by stating that the owner must be compensated with the market price. It is clearly better that property should be private, but the use of it common; and the special business of the legislator is to create in men this benevolent disposition. Aristotle 22 WHAT IS A JUST PRICE? MARKETS AND MORALITY IN CONTEXT FOCUS Society and the economy KEY THINKER Thomas Aquinas (1225–74) BEFORE C.350 BCE M any people know what it is like to be exploited or “ripped off” by a vendor, such as when buying overpriced ice-creams at a tourist venue. Yet according to prevailing economic theory, there is no such thing as a rip-off. The price of anything is simply the market price—the price In Politics, Aristotle says that all goods must be measured in value by one thing—“need.” What is a just price? 529–534 CE Roman courts protect landowners from being forced to sell land below the just price, at “great loss.” The market needs goods. AFTER 1544 The Spanish economist Luis Saravia de la Calle argues that price must be set by “common estimation” founded on quality and abundance. 1890 Alfred Marshall proposes that prices are automatically set by supply and demand. 1920 Ludwig von Mises argues that socialism cannot work because prices are the only way to establish need. people are prepared to pay. For market economists there is no moral dimension to price at all— pricing is simply an automatic function of supply and demand. Merchants who appear to be overcharging are simply pushing the price to its limits. If they push their price further than people are Traders will only supply goods if there is a reward (a proﬁt). But there is a moral dimension too. To avoid prices being “unjust”… … proﬁt should not be excessive, because avarice is a sin. … no deception can be involved in setting the value of the goods. … the buyer must freely accept the price. LET TRADING BEGIN 23 See also: Property rights 20–21 ■ Free market economics 54–61 demand 108–13 ■ Economics and tradition 166–67 ■ Supply and Thomas Aquinas Medieval communities felt strongly about the prices merchants charged. In 1321, William le Bole of London was punished for selling underweight bread by being dragged through the streets. prepared to pay, people stop buying, so the merchants are forced to bring down their prices. Market economists consider the marketplace to be the only way to establish price, as nothing—not even gold— has an intrinsic value. A price freely accepted The idea that the marketplace should set prices seems to contrast sharply with the view expressed by Sicilian scholar Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologica, one of the ﬁrst studies of the marketplace. For Aquinas, a scholar monk, price was a deeply moral issue. Aquinas recognized avarice as a deadly sin, but at the same time he saw that if a merchant is deprived of the proﬁt incentive, he would cease to trade, and the community would be deprived of goods it needed. Aquinas concluded that a merchant may charge a “just price,” which includes a decent proﬁt, but excludes excessive proﬁteering, which is sinful. This just price is simply the price the buyer freely agrees to pay, given honest information. The vendor is not obliged to make the buyer aware of facts that might lower the price in the future, such as the shiploads of cheap spice due to dock shortly. The issues of price and morality are very much alive today, since both economists and the public discuss “the just price” of a CEO’s bonus or the minimum wage. Free market economists, who reject interference in the market, and those who advocate government intervention—whether for moral or economic reasons—continue to argue about the rights and wrongs of imposing restrictions on pricing. ■ No man should sell a thing to another man for more than its worth. Thomas Aquinas St. Thomas Aquinas was one of the greatest scholars of the Middle Ages. He was born in Aquino, Sicily, in 1225, to an aristocratic family, and began his education at the age of ﬁve. At the age of 17 he decided to leave worldly wealth behind and join an order of poor Dominican monks. His family was so shocked that they kidnapped him on his way to join the order and held him captive for two years. His determination, however, remained unbroken, and eventually the family gave in, letting him go to Paris, where he came under the tutelage of the scholar monk Albert the Great (1206–80). Aquinas studied and taught in France and Italy, and in 1272, founded a studium generale (a type of university) in Naples, Italy. His many philosophical works were hugely inﬂuential in paving the way to the modern world. Key works 1256–59 Disputed Questions on Truth 1261–63 Summa contra Gentiles 1265–73 Summa Theologica 24 YOU DON’T NEED TO BARTER WHEN YOU HAVE COINS THE FUNCTION OF MONEY IN CONTEXT FOCUS Banking and ﬁnance KEY EVENT Kublai Khan adopts ﬁat money in the Mongol Empire during the 13th century. BEFORE 3000 BCE In Mesopotamia the shekel is used as a unit of currency: a unit of barley of a certain weight equals a certain value of gold or silver. 700 BCE The oldest known coins are made on the Greek island of Aegina. AFTER 13th century Marco Polo brings promissory notes from China to Europe, where they are used by Italian bankers. 1696 The Bank of Scotland is the ﬁrst commercial operation to issue bank notes. 1971 President Nixon cancels the convertibility of the US dollar to gold. I n many parts of the world people are increasingly moving towards a cashless society in which goods are bought with credit cards, electronic transfers, and mobile-phone chips. But dispensing with cash does not mean that money is not used. Money remains at the heart of all our transactions. The disturbing effects of money are well known, inciting everything from miserliness to crime and warfare. Money has been used as a tribute (sign of respect), in religious rites, and for ornamentation. “Blood money” is paid as recompense for murder; brides are bought with “bride money” or given away with dowries to enrich their husbands. Money lends status and power to individuals, families, and nations. The Tiwa tribal people of Assam, India, exchange goods through barter during the Jonbeel Mela, an age-old festival to preserve harmony and brotherhood between tribes. A barter economy Without money, people could only barter. Many of us barter to a small extent, when we return favors. A man might offer to mend his neighbor’s broken door in return for a few hours of babysitting, for instance. Yet it is hard to imagine these personal exchanges working on a larger scale. What would happen if you wanted a loaf of bread and all you had to trade was your new car? Barter depends on the double coincidence of wants, where not only does the other person happen to have what I want, but I also have what he wants. Money solves all these problems. There is no need to ﬁnd someone who wants what you have to trade; you simply pay for your goods with money. The seller can then take the money and buy from someone else. LET TRADING BEGIN 25 See also: Financial services 26–29 The paradox of value 63 ■ The quantity theory of money 30–33 Money is transferable and deferrable —the seller can hold on to it and buy when the time is right. Many argue that complex civilizations could never have arisen without the ﬂexibility of exchange that money allows. Money also gives a yardstick for deciding the value of things. If all goods have a monetary value, we can know and compare every cost. Different kinds of money There are two kinds of money: commodity and ﬁat. Commodity money has intrinsic value besides its speciﬁed worth, for example when gold coins are used as currency. Fiat money, ﬁrst used in With barter a person can only exchange with someone who wants what he or she has to offer. ■ China in the 10th century, is money that is simply a token of exchange with no value other than that assigned to it by the government. A paper bank note is ﬁat money. Many paper currencies were initially “promises to pay” against gold held in reserve. In theory dollars issued by the US Federal Reserve could be exchanged for their gold value. Since 1971, the value of a dollar has no longer been convertible to gold and is set entirely by the US Treasury, without reference to its gold reserves. Such ﬁat currencies rely on people’s conﬁdence in a country’s economic stability, which is not always assured. ■ With money an individual can buy from anyone who is willing to sell. With money a seller can sell to anyone who wants what the seller has. Shelling out Wampum were strings of white and black shell beads treasured by the indigenous North Americans of the Eastern Woodland tribes. Before the European settlers arrived in the 15th century, wampum was used mainly for ceremonial purposes. People might exchange wampum to record an agreement or to pay tribute. Its value came from the immense skill involved in making it, and in its ceremonial associations. When Europeans arrived, their tools revolutionized wampum making, and Dutch colonizers mass-produced the beads by the million. Soon, they were using wampum to trade and buy things from the native peoples, who had no interest in coins, but valued wampum. Wampum soon became a currency with an accepted exchange rate. In New York eight white or four black wampum equaled one stuiver (a Dutch coin of the time). The use and value of wampum diminished in the 1670s. But you don’t need to barter if you have coins. Money can be held until the time is right to buy. Money helps us measure the value of things. This Shawnee shoulder bag is decorated with wampum beads, which developed into a currency for some North American tribes. 26 IN CONTEXT MAKE MONEY FROM MONEY FINANCIAL SERVICES FOCUS Banking and ﬁnance KEY THINKERS The Medici family (1397–1494) BEFORE 13th century Scholastic writers condemn usury. AFTER 1873 British journalist Walter Bagehot urges the Bank of England to act as “lender of last resort” to the banking system. 1930 The Bank for International Settlements is founded in Basel, Switzerland, leading to international rules of banking regulation. 1992 US economist Hyman Minsky publishes The Financial Instability Hypothesis, which has proved useful in explaining the 2007–08 ﬁnancial crisis. H umans have long engaged in borrowing and lending. There is evidence that these activities took place 5,000 years ago in Mesopotamia (presentday Iraq) at the very dawn of civilization. But modern banking systems did not emerge until the 14th century in northern Italy. The word “bank” comes from the Italian word for the “bench” on which the bankers sat to conduct business. In the 14th century the Italian peninsula was a land of citystates that beneﬁted from the inﬂuence and revenue of the papacy in Rome. The peninsula was ideally located for trade between Asia, Africa, and the emerging nations LET TRADING BEGIN 27 See also: Public companies 38 Bank runs 316–21 ■ Financial engineering 262–65 of Europe. Wealth began to accumulate, especially in Venice and Florence. Venice relied on sea power: institutions were created there to ﬁnance and insure voyages. Florence focused on manufacturing and trade with northern Europe, and here merchants and ﬁnanciers came together at the Medici Bank. Florence was already home to other banking families, such as the Peruzzi and the Bardi, and to different types of ﬁnancial bodies— from pawnbrokers, who lent money secured by personal belongings, to local banks that dealt in foreign currencies, accepted deposits, and lent to local businesses. The bank founded by Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici in 1397 was different. The Medici Bank ﬁnanced longdistance trade in commodities such as wool. It differed from existing banks in three ways. First, it grew to a great size. In its heyday under the founder’s son, Cosimo, it ran branches in 11 cities, including London, Bruges, and Geneva. Second, its network was decentralized. Branches were managed not by an employee but by a local junior partner, who shared in the proﬁts. The Medici family in Florence were the senior partners, watching over the network, earning most of the proﬁt, and retaining the family trademark, which symbolized the bank’s sound reputation. Third, branches took in large deposits from wealthy savers, multiplying the lending that could be given out for a modest amount of initial capital, and so multiplying the bank’s proﬁts. Economics of banking These elements of the Medici success story correspond to three economic concepts highly relevant ■ Market uncertainty 274–75 to banking today. The ﬁrst is “economies of scale.” It is expensive for an individual to draw up a single legal loan contract, but a bank can draw up 1,000 such contracts at a fraction of the “per-contract” cost. Dealings in money (cash investments) are suitable for economies of scale. The second is “diversiﬁcation of risk.” The Medicis lowered the risk of bad lending by spreading their lending geographically. Moreover, because the junior partners shared in proﬁts and losses, they needed to lend wisely—in effect they took on some of the Medici risks. The third concept is “asset transformation.” Merchants might want to deposit earnings or borrow money. One ❯❯ ■ Financial crises 296–301 Merchant bankers of the late 14th century arranged deposits and loans but also converted foreign currencies and watched over the circulation for signs of forged or forbidden coins. Use your wealth to found a bank. Gather deposits and keep enough cash to cover withdrawals. Lend wisely, and monitor your loans. Spread your risks across different investments. As the bank grows, average costs fall and proﬁts multiply. Make money from money. ■ 28 FINANCIAL SERVICES merchant might want a safe place to store his gold, from where he can withdraw it quickly if necessary. Another might want a loan—which is riskier for the bank and may tie up money for a longer time. So the bank came to stand between the two needs: “borrowing short, and lending long.” This suited everybody —the depositor, the borrower, and of course the bank, which used customer deposits as borrowed money (“leverage”), to multiply proﬁts and make a high return on its owners’ invested capital. However, this practice also makes the bank vulnerable—if a large number of depositors demand their money back at the same time (in “a run on the bank”), the bank may be unable to provide it because it will have used the depositors’ money to make longterm loans, and it retains only a small fraction of depositors’ money in ready cash. This risk is a calculated one, and the advantage of the system is that it usefully connects savers and borrowers. Financing long-distance trade was a high-risk business in 14th-century Europe. It involved time and distance, so it suffered from what has been called the “fundamental problem of exchange” —the danger that someone will run off with the goods or the money after a deal has been struck. To solve this problem, the “bill of exchange” was developed. This was a piece of paper witnessing a buyer’s promise to pay for goods in a speciﬁc currency when the goods arrived. The seller of the goods could also sell the bill immediately to raise money. Italian merchant banks became particularly skilled at dealing in these bills, creating an international market for money. By buying the bill of exchange, a bank was taking on the risk that the buyer of the goods would not pay up. It was therefore essential for the bank to know who was likely to pay up and who was not. Lending—indeed ﬁnance in general—requires specialized, skilled knowledge, because a lack of information (known as “information asymmetry”) can result in serious problems. The borrowers least likely to repay are the ones most likely to ask for loans; and once they have received a loan, there are temptations not to repay. A bank’s most important function Bills of exchange, such as this one from 1713, later developed into the common bank check. All types promise to pay the bearer a speciﬁc amount of money on a certain date. is its ability to lend wisely, and then to monitor borrowers to deter “moral hazard”—when people succumb to the temptation not to repay and default on the loan. Geographical clusters Banks often cluster together in the same place to maximize information and skill. This explains A 21st-century banking crisis Granting mortgages to “subprime” borrowers (people unable to repay) led to a wave of house repossessions and the ﬁnancial crisis of 2007–08. The global ﬁnancial crisis, which began in 2007, has led to rethinking about the nature of banking. Leverage, or borrowed money, lay at the heart of the crisis. In 1900, about three-quarters of the assets of a bank might be ﬁnanced by borrowed money. In 2007, the proportion was often 95–99 percent. The banks’ enthusiasm for placing ﬁnancial bets on future movements in the market, known as derivatives, magniﬁed this leverage and the risks it carried. Signiﬁcantly, the crisis followed a period of banking deregulation. A variety of ﬁnancial innovations seemed lucrative in a rising market. However, they led to poor lending standards by two groups: those providing housing loans to poor US families, and bond investors overly reliant on the advice of credit rating agencies. These are the issues faced by all banks since the Medicis: poor information, ﬁnancial incentives, and risk. LET TRADING BEGIN 29 A banker is a fellow who lends you his umbrella when the sun is shining, but wants it back the minute it begins to rain. Mark Twain US author (1835–1910) the development of ﬁnancial districts in large cities. Economists call this phenomenon “network externalities,” which refers to the fact that, as a cluster starts to form, all the banks beneﬁt from the network of deepening skills and information. Florence was one such cluster. The City of London, with its goldsmiths and shipping experts, became another. In the early 1800s the remote northern inland province of Shanxi became China’s leading ﬁnancial center. Today, the internet creates new ways of clustering online. The beneﬁt of specialization explains why there are so many different types of banks—covering savings, mortgages, car loans, and so on. The form a bank takes can also address information problems. Mutual societies and credit unions, for instance, which are effectively owned by their customers, ﬁrst arose in the 19th century to increase trust between the bank and its The City of London is home to a dense cluster of banks built over medieval streets. Today it is the world’s largest center for foreign-exchange trading and cross-border bank lending. customers at a time of social change. Because the members of these organizations checked up on each other, and the managers had good local knowledge, they could provide the long-term loans that their customers needed. In some countries, such as Germany, they thrived. The Dutch bank Rabobank is an example of a cooperative model, as is India’s “micro-ﬁnance” Grameen Bank, which makes many loans of small amounts. However, clustering can also lead to risky competition and crowdlike behavior. It is especially important for banks to have a good reputation because they have an asset transformation role—they transform deposits into loans—and their loan-assets are riskier, longer, and less easy to turn into cash (less “liquid”) than their deposit-liabilities. Bad news can lead to panics. Bank failures can have severe consequences for other banks, and for government and society, as witnessed in the failure of Creditanstalt Bank in Austria in 1931, which led to a run on the German mark, UK sterling, and then the US dollar, triggering further bank runs and contributing to the Great Depression. As a result banks need to be regulated, and most countries have strict rules about who can form a bank, the information they must disclose, and the scope of their business activities. Finance broadly Banking is just the largest part of ﬁnance, but all ﬁnance is about connecting people who have more money than they need with people who need more money than they have—and will use it productively. Stock exchanges connect these needs directly, through equities (shares conferring ownership of a company), bonds (lending that can be traded), or other instruments. These exchanges are either physical places, such as the New York Stock Exchange, or regulated markets where trading takes place through phone calls and computers, like the international bond market. The clustering created by exchanges makes these long-term investments more liquid: they can easily be sold and turned into money. Savings can also be pooled to lower transaction costs and diversify risks. Mutual funds, pension funds, and insurance companies all perform this role. ■ 30 IN CONTEXT MONEY CAUSES INFLATION THE QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY FOCUS The macroeconomy KEY THINKER Jean Bodin (1530–96) BEFORE 1492 Christopher Columbus arrives in the Americas. Silver and gold ﬂow into Spain. AFTER 1752 David Hume states that the money supply has a direct relationship to the price level. 1911 Irving Fisher develops a mathematical formula to explain the quantity theory of money. 1936 John Maynard Keynes says that the velocity of money in circulation is unstable. 1956 Milton Friedman argues that a change in the amount of money in the economy can have a predictable effect on people’s incomes. I n 16th-century Europe prices were rising inexplicably. Some said that rulers were using an old practice of “debasing” currencies by minting coins with ever-smaller amounts of gold or silver in them. This was true. However, Jean Bodin, a French lawyer, argued that something much more signiﬁcant was also happening. In 1568, Bodin published his Response to the Paradoxes of Malestroit. The French economist Jean de Malestroit (?–1578) had blamed the price inﬂation solely on currency debasement, but Bodin showed that prices were rising sharply even when measured in pure silver. He argued that an LET TRADING BEGIN 31 See also: The function of money 24–25 ■ The Keynesian multiplier 164–65 Monetarist policy 196–201 ■ Inﬂation and unemployment 202–03 ■ Money circulates at a constant speed. If more money is put into the system… … leading to price rises. … people have more money in their pockets and wish to buy more goods and services. This results in too much money chasing too few goods… Money causes inﬂation. abundance of silver and gold was to blame. These precious metals were entering Spain from its new colonies in the Americas and then spreading throughout Europe. Bodin’s calculations of the increase in coinage were remarkably accurate. Later economists concluded that prices in Europe quadrupled during the 16th century, at the same time as the amount of physical silver and gold circulating in the system tripled; Bodin had estimated the increase in precious metals at more than 2.5 times. He also highlighted other factors behind the inﬂation: a demand for luxuries; a scarcity of goods for sale due to exports and waste; greedy merchants able to restrict the supply of goods through monopolies; and, of course, the rulers adulterating the coins. The money supply Bodin was not the ﬁrst to point to the new inﬂuence of American treasure and the effect of the abundance or scarcity of money on price levels. In 1556, a Spanish theologian named Martín de Azpilcueta (better known as Navarrus) had come to the same conclusion. However, Bodin’s essay also discussed the demand for and the supply of money, the operation of these two sides of an economy, and how disturbances to the ❯❯ Jean Bodin The son of a master tailor, Jean Bodin was born in 1530 in Angers, France. He was educated in Paris, and went on to study at the University of Toulouse. In 1560, he became a king’s advocate in Paris. Bodin’s scholarship (he read law, history, politics, philosophy, economics, and religion) attracted royal favor, and between 1571 and 1584, he served as aide to the powerful Duke of Alençon. In 1576, he married Françoise Trouilliart and succeeded his brother-in-law as the king’s procurator in Laon, northern France. In 1589, King Henry III was assassinated, and religious civil war broke out. Bodin believed in tolerance, but in Laon was forced to declare for the Catholic cause, until the victorious Protestant King, Henry IV, took control of the city. Bodin died of the plague, aged 66, in 1596. Key works 1566 Method for the Easy Comprehension of History 1568 Response to the Paradoxes of Malestroit 1576 Six Books of a Commonwealth 32 THE QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY will lead to a doubling of prices, but not real value. Money will be neutral in its effect on the real, relative value of goods and services—for example, on how many jackets can be bought for the price of a computer. supply of money led to inﬂation. His thorough study is considered the ﬁrst important statement of the quantity theory of money. The reasoning behind this theory is partly based on common sense. Why is the price of a cup of coffee in a rich part of town so much higher than in a poor area? The answer is that customers in the rich part have more money to spend. If we consider the population of a whole country and double the money in people’s pockets, it is natural that they will want to use their increased spending power to buy more goods and services. But goods and services are always in limited supply, so there will be too much money chasing too few goods, and prices will rise. This chain of events shows the important relationship between the quantity of money in an economy and the general price level. The quantity theory of money states that a doubling of the supply of money will result in a doubling in the value of transactions (or income or expenditure). In the theory’s more extreme form, a doubling of money Real price, nominal price After Bodin, many economists developed his idea further. They came to recognize that there is a distinct separation between the real side of the economy and the nominal, or money, side. Nominal prices are simply money prices, which can change with inﬂation. This is why economists focus on real prices—on what quantity of a thing (jackets, computers, or time spent working) has to be given up in return for another kind of thing, no matter what the nominal price is. In the extreme quantity theory, changes in the money supply may inﬂuence prices, but it has no effect on the real economic variables, such as output and unemployment. What is more, economists realized that money is itself a “good” that people want to own for its spending power. Money circulation 25 20 15 10 The abundance of gold and silver… is greater in this kingdom today than it has been in the last 400 years. Jean Bodin However, the money they want is not nominal money, but “real money”—money that can buy more. Fisher’s equation The fullest statement of the quantity theory of money was made by the US economist Irving Fisher (1867–1947), who used the mathematical formula MV = PT. Here “P” is the general level of prices, and “T” is the transactions that take place in a year, so PT (Prices × Price level 5 Irving Fisher used the analogy of a scale to illustrate the quantity theory of money. If there is an increase in the amount of money in circulation, the bag gets heavier, and the price of goods rises and moves to the right, balancing the scale. 5 10 15 20 25 LET TRADING BEGIN 33 This painting by Dutch master Pieter Bruegel (1559) shows vagrants rubbing shoulders with the rich during Lent. Steep price rises in the 15th century led to much hardship among the poor, a rise in vagrancy, and peasant revolts. Transactions) is the total value of transactions occurring annually. “M” is the supply of money. But because PT is a total ﬂow of goods, while M represents a stock of money that can be used over and over again, the equation needs something to represent the circulation of money. This circular ﬂow, which causes money to rotate through the economy—like the spinning drum of a washing machine—is “V”, the velocity of money. This equation becomes a theory when we make assumptions about the relationships between the letters, which economists do in three ways. First, V, the velocity of money, is assumed to be constant, since the way in which we use money is part of habit and custom and does not change much from year to year (our washing machine drum spins at a steady rate). This is the key assumption behind the quantity theory of money. Second, it is assumed that T, the quantity of transactions in an economy, is driven solely by consumers’ demand and producers’ technology, which together determine prices. Third, we allow that there can be one-time changes to M (the supply of money), such as the ﬂow of New World treasure into Europe. With V (velocity) and T (transactions) ﬁxed, it follows that a doubling of money will lead to a doubling of prices. Combined with the difference between nominal and real, the quantity theory of money has led to the notion that money is neutral in its effect on the economy. Challenge and restatement But is money really neutral? Few believe that it is neutral in the short run. The immediate effect of more money in the pocket is for it to be spent on real goods and services. John Maynard Keynes (p.161) said it was probably neutral in the long run, but in the short run it would affect real variables such as output and unemployment. Evidence also suggests that money velocity (V) is not constant. It seems to rise in booms when inﬂation is high and falls in recessions when inﬂation is low. Keynes had other ideas that challenged the quantity theory of money. He proposed that money is used, not just as a medium of exchange, but also as a “store of value”—something you can keep, either for buying goods, for security in case of hard times in the future, or for future investments. Keynesian economists argue that these motives are affected less by income or transactions (PT in the formula) than by interest rates. A rise in the interest rate will lead to a rise in the velocity of money. In 1956, US economist Milton Friedman (p.199) defended the quantity theory of money, arguing that an individual’s demand for real money balances (where money buys more) depends on wealth. He claimed that it is people’s incomes that drive this demand. Today, central banks print money electronically and use it to buy government debt in a process known as quantitative easing. Their aim has been to prevent a feared fall in the money supply. So far, the most visible effect has been to reduce interest rates on government debt. ■ Inﬂation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon. Milton Friedman 34 PROTECT US FROM FOREIGN GOODS PROTECTIONISM AND TRADE IN CONTEXT FOCUS Global economy A country’s wealth is its gold. KEY THINKER Thomas Mun (1571–1641) BEFORE c.1620 Gerard de Malynes argues that England should regulate foreign exchange to stop the nation’s gold and silver from going abroad. AFTER 1691 English merchant Dudley North argues that the main spur to increased national wealth is consumption. Exports bring in gold. A mercantilist view Imports of foreign goods cause gold to be lost. 1791 US Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton argues for protection of young industries. 1817 British economist David Ricardo argues that foreign trade can beneﬁt all nations. 1970s US economist Milton Friedman insists that free trade helps developing countries. F or the last half century many economists have championed free trade. They argue that only by removing restrictions on trade (such as tariffs) can goods and money ﬂow freely around the world and global markets develop without inhibition. Some disagree, arguing that where there is a huge imbalance of trade between two countries, it can impact jobs and wealth. A country should preserve its stock of gold by restricting imports. Protect us from foreign goods. The argument over free trade dates back to the mercantilist era, which began in Europe in the 16th century and continued until the late 18th century. With the rise of Dutch and English seaborne trade, wealth began to shift from southern Europe toward the north. This was also the age when nation-states began to emerge, along with the idea of the wealth of the nation, which was measured by the amount of “treasure” (gold and silver) it possessed. Mercantilists believed that the world drew from a “limited pot,” so the wealth of each nation depended on ensuring a favorable “balance of trade,” in which more gold ﬂows into the nation than out. If an excess of gold LET TRADING BEGIN 35 See also: Comparative advantage 80–85 ■ International trade and Bretton Woods 186–87 Dependency theory 242–43 ■ Global savings imbalances 322–25 ﬂows out, the nation’s prosperity declines, wages fall, and jobs are lost. England sought to cut the outﬂow of gold by imposing sumptuary laws, which aimed to limit the consumption of foreign goods. For instance, laws were passed restricting the types of fabric that could be used for clothes, reducing the demand for ﬁne foreign cotton and silk. Malynes and Mun Gerard de Malynes (1586–1641), an English expert on foreign exchange, believed that the outﬂow of gold should be restricted. If too much ﬂowed out, he argued, the value of English currency would fall. However, the century’s greatest mercantilist theorist, Englishman Thomas Mun, insisted that what matters is not the fact that payments are made abroad, but how trade and payments ﬁnally balance out. Mun wanted to boost exports and cut imports through more frugal consumption of domestic produce. However, he saw no problem in spending gold abroad if it was used to acquire goods that were then reexported for a larger sum, ultimately returning more gold to the country than had initially been spent. This would boost trade, provide work for the shipping industry, and increase England’s treasure. Free trade agreements In the 18th century Adam Smith (p.61) was to disagree with this view. What matters, he insisted in The Wealth of Nations, is not the wealth of individual nations but the wealth of all nations. Nor is the pot ﬁxed; it can grow over time—but only if trade between nations is unrestricted. If left free, Smith insisted, the market would always grow to enrich all countries eventually. For the last half century Smith’s view has dominated, because most Western economists argue that restrictions on trade between nations hobble their economies. Today, free trade areas such as the EU (European Union), ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) are the norm, while global organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) urge countries to reduce tariffs and other trade barriers to allow foreign ﬁrms to enter their domestic markets. The creation of barriers to foreign trade is criticized now as protectionism. However, some economists are concerned that exposure to large global businesses has the potential to damage developing countries who are unable to nurture infant industries behind protective Thomas Mun Born in 1571, Thomas Mun grew up in a family of wealthy London merchants. His father died when he was three, and his mother married Thomas Cordell, who became a director of the East India Company, Britain’s largest trading company. Mun began trading as a merchant in the Mediterranean. In 1615, he became a director of the East India Company. His ideas were developed originally to defend the company’s export of large ■ Market integration 226–31 ■ French farmers demonstrated on tractors in Paris, 2010, to denounce a sharp fall in grain prices after import quotas were liberalized. barriers, as the US, Britain, Japan, and South Korea did before they became economically powerful. China, meanwhile, pursues a trade policy that in many ways echoes Mun’s thinking by running large trade surpluses and building up a huge reserve of foreign exchange. ■ amounts of silver, on the grounds that this generated reexport trade. In 1628, the company appealed to the British government to protect their trade against Dutch competition. Mun represented their case to Parliament. He had amassed a considerable fortune by the time he died in 1641. Key works 1621 A Discourse of Trade c.1630 England’s Treasure by Foreign Trade 36 THE ECONOMY CAN BE COUNTED MEASURING WEALTH IN CONTEXT FOCUS Economic methods Wealth includes people as well as property. Both population and a typical person’s average expenditure can be estimated. Deducting an estimated amount for rents and proﬁts leaves a sum for the total worth of labor. Multiplying average expenditure by the population gives the national income. KEY THINKER William Petty (1623–87) BEFORE 1620 English scientist Francis Bacon argues for a new approach to science based on the collection of facts. AFTER 1696 English statistician Gregory King writes his great statistical survey of England’s population. 1930s Australian economist Colin Clark invents the idea of gross national product (GNP). 1934 Russian-US economist Simon Kuznets develops modern national income accounting methods. 1950s British economist Richard Stone introduces balanced, double-entry national accounting. The economy can be counted. T oday we take it for granted that the economy can be measured, and its expansions and contractions accurately quantiﬁed. But this was not always the case. The idea of measuring the economy dates back to the 1670s and the pioneering work of English scientist William Petty. His insight was to apply the new empirical methods of science to ﬁnancial and political affairs—to use real world data rather than relying on logical reasoning. He decided to express himself only “in terms of number, weight, or LET TRADING BEGIN 37 See also: The circular ﬂow of the economy 40–45 ■ Testing economic theories 170 The economics of happiness 216–19 ■ Gender and economics 310–11 measure.” This approach helped form the basis of the discipline that would become known as economics. In his 1690 book Political Arithmetick, Petty used real data to show that, contrary to popular belief, England was wealthier than ever. One of his groundbreaking decisions was to include the value of labor as well as land and capital. Although Petty’s ﬁgures are open to dispute, there is no doubting the effectiveness of his basic idea. His calculations included population size, personal spending, wages per person, the value of rents, and others. He then multiplied these ﬁgures to give a total ﬁgure for the nation’s total wealth, creating accounts for an entire nation. Similar methods were developed in France by Pierre de Boisguilbert (p.334) and Sébastien le Prestre (1633–1707). In England Gregory King (1648–1712) analyzed The Battle of La Hogue was fought in 1692 during the Nine Years’ War. English statistician Gregory King calculated how long each country involved could afford to ﬁght. ■ the economies and populations of England, Holland, and France. He calculated that none had the ﬁnances to continue the war they were then engaged in—the Nine Years’ War—beyond 1698. His ﬁgures might have been correct, because the war ended in 1697. Measures of progress Statistics are now at the heart of economics. Today, economists generally measure gross domestic product (GDP)—the total value of all the goods and services exchanged for money within a country in a particular period (usually a year). However, there is still no deﬁnitive way of calculating national accounts, although efforts have been made to standardize methods. Economists have now begun to broaden the measurement of prosperity. They have formulated new measures such as the genuine progress indicator (GPI), which includes adjustments for income distribution, crime, pollution, and the happy planet index (HPI), a measure of human well-being and environmental impact. ■ William Petty Born in 1623 to a humble family in Hampshire, England, William Petty lived through the English Civil War and rose to high positions in both the Commonwealth government and then the restored monarchy. As a young man he worked for the English political economist Thomas Hobbes in Holland. After returning to England, he taught anatomy at Oxford University. A great believer in the new science, he found universities uninspiring, so left for Ireland, where he made a monumental land survey of the entire country. In the 1660s he returned to England and began the work on economics for which he is now known. For the remainder of his life he moved between Ireland and England, both physically and in the focus of his work. Petty is regarded as one of the ﬁrst great political economists. He died in 1687, aged 64. Key works 1662 Treatise of Taxes and Contributions 1690 Political Arithmetick 1695 Quantulumcunque Concerning Money 38 LET FIRMS BE TRADED PUBLIC COMPANIES IN CONTEXT FOCUS Markets and ﬁrms KEY THINKER Josiah Child (1630–99) BEFORE 1500s Governments grant merchants the monopoly of trade within speciﬁc regions. 1552–71 The Bourse in Antwerp and Royal Exchange in London are set up for shareholders to buy and sell stock in joint-stock companies. AFTER 1680 London stock “brokers” meet in Jonathan’s Coffee House to arrange share deals. 1844 The Joint Stock Companies Act in the UK allows ﬁrms to be incorporated more quickly and easily. 1855 The idea of limited liability protects investors in joint-stock companies from scams such as the South Sea Bubble of 1720 (p.98). M erchant ships have always raised funds for voyages by promising a share of proﬁts. In the 1500s the rewards could be huge, but these high-risk ventures tied up money for years before a proﬁt was realized. The answer was to share the risk, and so joint-stock companies were formed, where investors injected money into a company in return for becoming joint holders of its trading stock, and a right to a proportional share of the proﬁts. and was borrowing a further $28 million on bonds. Its annual sales raised up to $10 million. The idea of the public limited company—in which shareholders are protected from liability beyond their investment—developed from joint-stock companies. The selling of shares is an important way of raising funds. Some argue that shareholders’ power to sell shares leads to a lack of commitment, but the joint-stock company remains at the heart of capitalism. ■ East India Company An early joint-stock company, formed in 1599, was the East India Company (EIC), launched to develop trade between Britain and the East Indies. Its rights to free trade were so ably defended by the “father of mercantilists,” London merchant Josiah Child, that it became a global phenomenon. By the time of his death the company had about 3,000 shareholders, subscribed to a stock of more than $14 million, See also: Economic equilibrium 118–23 Institutions in economics 206–07 The high-risk, high-reward potential of merchant shipping was shared by joint-stock companies. Vessels such as the John Wood, seen here in Bombay in the 1850s, brought home the goods. ■ Corporate governance 168–69 ■ LET TRADING BEGIN 39 WEALTH COMES FROM THE LAND AGRICULTURE IN THE ECONOMY IN CONTEXT FOCUS Growth and development KEY THINKER François Quesnay (1694–1774) BEFORE 1654–56 English economist William Petty conducts a major land survey of Ireland to calculate its productive potential for the English army. AFTER 1766 Adam Smith states that labor, not land, is the greatest source of value. 1879 US economist Henry George argues that land should be held in common by society, and that only land should be taxed—not productive labor. 1950s US economist Theodore Schultz’s “efﬁcient farmer” hypothesis places agriculture at the heart of economic development. I n recent years bankers have sometimes been characterized as parasites, living off wealth created by the labor of others. François Quesnay (p.45), a French farmworker’s son and one of the great minds of the 18th century, might recognize this description. Quesnay argued that wealth lies not in gold and silver, but springs from production—the output of the farmer or manufacturer. He argued that agriculture is so valuable because it works with nature— which multiplies the farmer’s effort and resources—to produce a net surplus. Manufacturing, on the other hand, is “sterile” because the value of its output is equal to the value of the input. However, later theorists showed that manufacturing can also produce a surplus. The natural order Quesnay’s championing of the value of agriculture was inﬂuential, leading to the development of the French school of physiocrat thinkers who believed in the primacy of the “natural order” in the economy. If we knew the economics of agriculture, we would know much of the economics of being poor. Theodore Schultz US economist (1902–98) Many economists, including Theodore Schultz, have argued that agricultural development is the foundation for progress in poor countries. In 2008, the World Bank reported that growth in the agricultural sector contributes more to poverty reduction than growth in any other sector. But economists today also recognize that diversiﬁcation into industry and services, including ﬁnance, is vital for long-term development. ■ See also: Demographics and economics 68–69 ■ The labor theory of value 106–07 The emergence of modern economies 178–79 ■ Development economics 188–93 ■ MONEY AND GOODS FLOW BETWEEN PRODUCERS AND CONSUMERS THE CIRCULAR FLOW OF THE ECONOMY 42 THE CIRCULAR FLOW OF THE ECONOMY IN CONTEXT FOCUS The macroeconomy KEY THINKER François Quesnay (1694–1774) BEFORE 1664–76 English economist William Petty introduces the concepts of national income and expenditure. 1755 Irish merchant banker Richard Cantillon’s Essay, ﬁrst published in France, discusses the circulation of money from the city to the countryside. AFTER 1885 Karl Marx’s Capital describes the circulation of capital using a model inspired by Quesnay. 1930s Russian-American economist Simon Kuznets develops modern national income accounting. I n economics one can think small—microeconomics—or one can think as large as the entire system: this is the study of macroeconomics. In 18th-century France a group known as the physiocrats tried to think big—they wanted to understand and explain the whole economy as a system. Their ideas form the foundation of modern macroeconomics. The physiocrats Physiocracy is an ancient Greek word meaning “power over nature.” The physiocrats believed that nations gained their economic Madame de Pompadour (the mistress of Louis XV) installed Quesnay at Versailles as her physician. To him her lifestyle must have epitomized the lavish surplus of landowners’ wealth. wealth from nature, through their agricultural sector. Their leader, François Quesnay, was surgeon and physician to King Louis XV’s mistress, Madame de Pompadour. His complicated model of the economy was thought by some to reﬂect the circulation of blood in a human body. The mercantilist approach (pp.34–35) dominated economic thinking at the time. Mercantilists thought the state should behave like a merchant, growing business, acquiring gold, and actively interfering with the economy through taxes, subsidies, controls, and monopoly privileges. The physiocrats took the opposite view: they argued that the economy was naturally self-regulating and needed only to be protected from bad inﬂuences. They favored free trade, low taxes, secure property rights, and low government debt. Where the mercantilists said that wealth came from treasure, Quesnay and his followers viewed it as being rooted in what modern economists call the “real” economy —those sectors that create real goods and services. They believed that agriculture was the most productive of these sectors. The physiocrats were inﬂuenced by the thinking of an earlier French landowner, Pierre de Boisguilbert. He said that agriculture is superior to manufacturing, and consumables are more valuable than gold. He said the more goods consumed, the more money moves in the system, making consumption the driving force in the economy. He also said that a little money in the hands of the poor (who spend it) is worth far more to the economy than in the hands of the rich (who hoard it). The movement, or circulation, of money is all-important. The Economic Table The physiocratic system of circulation was set out in Quesnay’s Economic Table, which was published and revised several times between 1758 and 1767. This is a diagram that illustrates, through a series of crossing and connecting lines, the ﬂow of money and goods between three groups in society: landowners, farmers, and artisans. The goods are agricultural and manufactured products (produced by the farmers and artisans). Although Quesnay used corn as his example of an agricultural product, he said that this category could include anything produced from the land, including mining products. Quesnay’s model is best understood through an example. Imagine each of the three groups starts with $2 million. The LET TRADING BEGIN 43 See also: Measuring wealth 36–37 ■ Agriculture in the economy 39 ■ Free market economics 54–61 Marxist economics 100–05 ■ Economic equilibrium 118–23 ■ The Keynesian multiplier 164–65 landowners produce nothing. They spend their $2 million equally between farming and artisan products, and consume all of them. They receive $2 million in rent from the farmers—which the farmers can just afford, since they are the only group to produce a surplus—and so the landowners end up back where they started. The farmers are the productive group. From a starting point of $2 million they produce $5 million worth of agricultural products, over and above what they consume themselves. Of this $1 million worth is sold to landowners for their consumption. They sell $2 million worth to artisans, half for consumption and half as raw materials for the goods the artisans will produce. This leaves $2 million worth to be used toward next year’s growing season. In terms of production they are back where they started. However, they also have $3 million from sales, of which they spend ■ Landowners collect rent from farmers and buy goods from farmers and artisans. Farmers use this money to buy goods from artisans and other farmers. Artisans use this money to buy goods from farmers and other artisans. Those farmers and artisans then use the money to buy goods from yet more farmers and artisans. This multi-level buying and selling activity happens continuously. $2 million on rent and $1 million on artisan goods (tools, agricultural implements, and so on). Quesnay referred to any group outside the land-based farmers and landowners as “sterile,” because he believed that they could not produce a net surplus. The artisans, in this instance, use their starting amount of $2 million to produce $2 million worth of manufactured goods over and above what they consume themselves. These are sold equally to landowners and farmers. But Quesnay’s Economic Table shows the zigzag ﬂow of wealth between farmers, landowners, and artisans. It was the ﬁrst attempt to explain the workings of a national economy. Money and goods ﬂow between producers and consumers. they spend their entire revenue on agricultural products: $1 million for their own consumption, and $1 million on raw materials. They have consumed everything they have. Quesnay’s model does more than present end-of-year results— it also shows how money and goods circulate through the year and demonstrates why this is so important. The sale of products between the various groups continues to generate revenue, which is then used to buy more products, which produces yet more revenue. A “multiplier effect” occurs (in Quesnay’s diagram it appeared as a zigzag series of lines), similar to that presented ❯❯ 44 THE CIRCULAR FLOW OF THE ECONOMY Let the sum total of the revenues be annually returned into and along the entire course of circulation. François Quesnay by John Maynard Keynes (p.161) in the 1930s, when he pointed out the beneﬁcial effects of a government spending money in a depressed economy. Analyzing the economy The kinds of questions Quesnay asked, and the way he went about answering them, anticipated modern economics. He was one of the ﬁrst to attempt to uncover general abstract laws that govern economies, which he did by breaking economies down into their constituent parts and then rigorously analyzing the relationships between the parts. His model included inputs, outputs, and the interdependencies of different sectors. Quesnay suggested that these might exist in a state of equilibrium, an idea that was later developed by Léon Walras (p.120), becoming one of the foundations of economic theorizing. Quesnay’s approach to quantifying economic laws makes his Economic Table possibly the ﬁrst empirical macroeconomic model. The numbers in his Table were the result of a close study of the French economic system, giving them a ﬁrm empirical basis. This study indicated that farming technology was sufﬁcient for farmers to generate a net surplus of at least 100 percent. In our example this is what they achieve —starting with $2 million of corn, they receive this back plus a net surplus of $2 million, which is then paid in rent. Modern economists use these kinds of empirical results to think about the impact of policy changes, and Quesnay used his Table for a similar purpose. He argued that if farmers had to pay too much tax, either directly or indirectly, they would cut back their capital investment in farming technology, and production would fall below the level needed for the economy to thrive. This led the physiocrats to argue that there should be only one tax: on the rental value of land. Based on his empirical ﬁndings, Quesnay made a host of other policy recommendations, including investment in agriculture, the spending of all revenue, no hoarding, low taxes, and free trade. He thought capital was especially important because his entrepreneur-farmers needed to borrow cheaply in order to pay for land improvements. Classical ideas Quesnay’s idea of sectors being productive or unproductive has reappeared throughout the history of economic thought as economists consider industry versus services, and the private sector versus the government. His sole focus on agriculture may look narrow to modern eyes, since it is now understood that wealth generation from industry and services is vital to an economy’s growth. However, his emphasis on the “real” side of the economy was an important step towards modern economic thinking. He most obviously anticipated modern national income accounting, which is used to assess nations’ macroeconomic performance. This income accounting is based on the circular ﬂow of income and expenditure According to the physiocrats, investment in agriculture was key to ensuring the national wealth of France. Free export was a way of sustaining demand and restricting merchant power. LET TRADING BEGIN 45 The interdependence of consumers and producers was ﬁrst illustrated by Quesnay. Consumers rely on producers for goods and services, who in turn rely on the consumers for sales and labor. Goods and services Consumer expenditure Households Wages, rent, dividends Firms Labor around the economy. The value of the total product of an economy is equal to the total income earned —a notion that was an important part of Quesnay’s theory. In the 20th century much of the analysis of macroeconomies has revolved around the Keynesian multiplier (pp.164–65). Keynes showed how government spending could stimulate further spending in a “multiplier effect.” This idea has obvious links to This system… is, perhaps, the nearest approximation to truth that has yet been published on the subject of political economy. Adam Smith Quesnay’s circular ﬂow, with its susceptibility to expansion and stagnation. Perhaps most importantly, Quesnay’s concepts of surplus and capital became key to the way that the classical economists analyzed economic growth. A typical classical model focuses on three factors of production: land, labor, and capital. Landowners receive rent and spend wastefully on luxuries; laborers accept a low wage, and if it rises, they produce more children. However, entrepreneurs earn proﬁt and re-invest it productively in industry. So proﬁt drives growth, and economic performance depends on sectors of the economy generating surpluses. Thus, Quesnay anticipated later ideas about the growth of economies and inspired Karl Marx (p.105), who produced his own version of the Economic Table in 1885. Marx said of Quesnay that “never before had thinking in political economy reached such heights of genius.” ■ François Quesnay Born near Paris, France, in 1694, François Quesnay was the son of a plowman and the eighth of 13 children. At the age of 17 he began an apprenticeship in engraving, but then transferred to the university, graduating from the college of surgeons in 1717. He made his name as a surgeon and specialized in treating the nobility; in 1749, he moved to the royal palace at Versailles, near Paris, as physician to Madame de Pompadour. In 1752, he saved the king’s son from smallpox and was awarded a title and enough money to buy an estate for his own son. His interest in economics began in the early 1750s, and in 1757 he met the Marquis de Mirabeau, with whom he formed les Economistes—the physiocrats. He died in 1774. Key works 1758 Economic Table 1763 Rural Philosophy (with Marquis de Mirabeau) 1766 Analysis of the Arithmetic Formula for the Economic Table 46 PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS NEVER PAY FOR STREET LIGHTS PROVISION OF PUBLIC GOODS AND SERVICES IN CONTEXT Street lights are an example of a public good because… FOCUS Decision making KEY THINKER David Hume (1711–76) BEFORE c.500 BCE In Athens indirect taxes are used to ﬁnance city festivals, temples, and walls. Occasional direct taxes are levied at times of war. … it is difﬁcult to stop people from beneﬁting from street lighting. 1421 The ﬁrst patent is granted to Italian engineer Filippo Brunelleschi to protect his invention of hoisting gear for barges. AFTER 1848 The Communist Manifesto advocates collective ownership of the means of production by the workers. 19th century Public street lighting is introduced in Europe and America. 1954 US economist Paul Samuelson develops a modern theory of public goods. … one person’s use of street lighting does not diminish another’s enjoyment of it. Private ﬁrms do not provide street lights since they can't stop non-payers from using them. Essential public goods are usually provided by the government, because… E ven within a well-functioning market economy, there are areas in which markets fail. One important example of market failure is in the provision of public goods—goods that are to become … private individuals never pay for street lights. freely available to all, or where it would be difﬁcult to prevent their use by non-payers. These goods, which include things such as national defense, are difﬁcult for a private ﬁrm or individual to LET TRADING BEGIN 47 See also: Free market economics 54–61 social outcomes 210–13 Lighthouses are a public good from which it is hard to exclude non-payers, and which many people can use at the same time. They are invariably provided collectively. supply proﬁtably. This problem, known as “free-riding” (where consumers enjoy the goods without paying for them) means that there is no proﬁt incentive. However, there is a demand for these goods, and because private markets may not be able to satisfy this demand, public goods are usually provided by governments and funded through taxation. A failure of the market to provide these goods was recognized by the philosopher David Hume in the 18th century. Inﬂuenced by Hume, Adam Smith (p.61), an ardent advocate of the free market, conceded that a government’s role was to provide those public goods that it would not be proﬁtable for individuals or ﬁrms to produce. There are two distinguishing characteristics of public goods that cause them to be undersupplied by the markets: non-excludability, meaning that it is difﬁcult to prevent people who don’t pay for the goods from using them; and ■ External costs 137 ■ Markets and non-rivalry, meaning that one person’s consumption of the good does not diminish the ability of others to consume it. A classic example is street lighting; it would be almost impossible to exclude non-payers from enjoying its beneﬁts, and no individual’s use of it detracts from that beneﬁt to other users. As industrial economies developed in the 19th century, countries had to overcome the problem of free-riding in areas such as intellectual property. Intangible goods, such as new knowledge and discoveries, have the attributes of non-excludability and non-rivalry, and so are at risk of being undersupplied by the market. This could discourage the development of new technologies unless they can be protected in some way. To do this, countries developed laws granting patents, copyright, and trademarks to protect the returns from new knowledge and inventions. Most economists acknowledge that government has a responsibility to provide public goods, but debate continues about the extent of that responsibility. ■ Where the riches are engrossed by a few, these must contribute very largely to the supplying of the public necessities. David Hume David Hume The epitome of the “Scottish Enlightenment,” David Hume was one of the most inﬂuential British philosophers of the 18th century. He was born in Edinburgh in 1711, and from an early age showed signs of a brilliant mind: he entered Edinburgh University at the age of 12, studying ﬁrst law and then philosophy. In 1734, Hume moved to France, where he set out his major philosophical ideas in A Treatise of Human Nature. He then devoted much of his time to writing essays on literary and political subjects and struck up a friendship with the young Adam Smith, who had been inspired by his writings. In 1763, Hume was given a diplomatic role in Paris, where he befriended the revolutionary French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He settled in Edinburgh again in 1768, where he lived until his death in 1776, aged 65 years. Key works 1739 A Treatise of Human Nature 1748 An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 1752 Political Discourses THE AGE OF REAS 1770–1820 ON 50 INTRODUCTION Anne-RobertJacques Turgot argues for the exemption of trade and industry from taxation. Richard Arkwright opens a mechanized cotton mill in England and later introduces machinery that sets the pace for industrialization. Adam Smith’s classic work, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, is published. The American Declaration of Independence is adopted by Congress. 1766 1771 1776 1776 T 1770S 1774 1776 1780S David Hume denounces trade protectionism, arguing that countries should not strive to export more than they import. Turgot is appointed ﬁnance minister in France and attempts to reform the tax system by taxing wealthy landowners. The ﬁrst of James Watt’s steam engines are put into operation in British factories, marking the true beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Smith’s proposals on liberalizing trade are adopted by British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger. oward the end of the 18th century much of the world was undergoing enormous political change. The so-called Age of Reason produced scientists whose discoveries were leading to new technologies that would transform the way goods were produced. At the same time political philosophers had inspired revolutions in France and North America that would have a profound effect on the social structures of both the Old and the New Worlds. In the ﬁeld of economics a new scientiﬁc approach was overturning the old mercantilist view of an economy driven by protected trade and reliant on exports as a means of preserving its wealth. By the end of the Napoleonic wars in 1815, Europe, and Britain in particular, had begun to industrialize on an unprecedented scale. A fresh approach was needed to describe and meet the demands of this rapidly emerging economic new world. Rational economic man The economist who rose most successfully to this new challenge was a Scotsman, Adam Smith (p.61). His background in the philosophy of British Enlightenment thinkers, such as John Locke and David Hume (p.47), led him to approach the subject initially as one of moral philosophy. However, in his famous book of 1776, The Wealth of Nations, he presented a comprehensive analysis of the market economy and how it contributed to the economic welfare of the people. Central to his thesis was the concept of “rational economic man.” Smith argued that individuals made economic decisions on the basis of reason and in their own selfinterest, not for the good of society. When they were allowed to act in this way in a free society with competitive markets, an “invisible hand” guided the economy for the beneﬁt of all. This was the ﬁrst detailed description of a free market economy, which Smith advocated as the means of ensuring prosperity and freedom. It is generally regarded as a milestone in the development of economics as a discipline. The approach to economics that Smith helped to establish is often referred to as “classical” economics. His analysis of a competitive market economy was essentially a THE AGE OF REASON 51 The storming of the Bastille prison in Paris sparks off the French Revolution. Edmund Burke criticizes state involvement in the regulation of wages and prices. Jean-Baptiste Say proposes Say’s law of markets: there can never be a deﬁciency of demand or a glut of goods in the economy. Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi describes business cycles and the difference between long-term growth and short-term ups and downs. 1789 1795 1803 1819 1791 1798 1817 1819 Jeremy Bentham sets out his theory of utilitarianism; its goal is “the greatest happiness of the greatest number.” Thomas Malthus warns of the danger of population outstripping resources, and the suffering that this will bring. David Ricardo lays the foundations for 19th-century classical economics, advocating free trade and the specialization of labor. The US suffers its ﬁrst major ﬁnancial crisis, which follows a period of sustained growth. description of what we now know as capitalism. However, The Wealth of Nations was far more than a description of the economy as a whole, or “macroeconomics.” It also examined issues such as the division of labor and its contribution to growth, and what factors were involved in giving value to goods. The publication of Smith’s work coincided with the start of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, a period of rapidly accelerating economic growth and prosperity aided by dynamic new technology and innovation. Smith’s ideas found a willing audience, eager to understand how the economy worked and how best to take advantage of it. His work was hugely inﬂuential, raising many of the questions that needed to be addressed in managing the economy of an industrialized society. In particular Smith addressed the place of government in a capitalist society, arguing for a limited role for the state. Ending protectionism British political economist David Ricardo (p.84) was one of the most inﬂuential of Smith’s followers. A staunch advocate of free trade, Ricardo put the ﬁnal nail in the cofﬁn of protectionism when he showed how all countries, even those that were less productive, could beneﬁt from free trade. He also cast a critical eye over the ways that government spending and borrowing affected the economy. Another of Smith’s followers was Thomas Malthus (p.69), a British clergyman and scholar famous today for his gloomy predictions of the suffering that